Other graphene derivatives include graphene oxide and fluorinated graphene. These derivatives also provide for band gap modification, exfoliation, and use as substrates for devices and active molecules. Graphene oxide and oxidized graphite are widely used in research in applications including lithium intercalation battery materials, supercapacitor electrodes, solar cell coatings, biomaterials, biosensors, and chemical sensors [4,17,18]. Graphene oxide is a more heterogeneous material than graphane having a variety of epoxy, hydroxyl, carboxyl, and carbonyl groups attached to the graphitic backbone. Reduction of graphene oxide to graphene by chemical or thermal processes is possible but incomplete, leaving residual oxidation and damage to the graphite structure so that the original graphite structure is never fully recovered .
Fluorinated graphite/graphene is structurally similar to graphane, with one fluorine atom per carbon in the fully saturated state. It shares many of the same characteristics including increasing band gap, exfoliation, and reversion to graphene by thermal or chemical reduction [4,19]. Because of the higher binding energy of fluorine to carbon, fluorinated graphene is more stable than graphane which makes the reversion to graphene or further functionalization of the material more difficult.
Graphene derivatives such as fluorinated graphite/graphene, graphene oxide, and others are commercially available through chemical supply outlets. Graphane, however, is not currently available on the market because it is difficult to synthesize and has not yet gained market traction.